Aboriginal case study

INSTRUCTION Contemporary issue essay: 2000 words DOI. Bill is 55 and has End Stage Kidney Disease. He has been managing his peritoneal dialysis with the help of the Local Aboriginal Medical Service in his remote desert community but now the Doctors are saying he needs Haemodialysis 3 times a week in Perth. Discuss the similarities and differences between Aboriginal Medical Services and an urban outpatient renal unit (or similar community-level support for chronic disease like General Practice). Using the concepts from this unit, discuss the reasons Bill may choose to stay in his community despite knowing this is a life-limiting decision. Outline strategies that the health service in Perth could implement to make Bill’s experience culturally safe. A specific resource about kidney health and dialysis services is attached above. Frame your essay around key concepts in this unit such as: • Race/culture/ethnicity/identity • Privilege/Equality/Access to health services • Unequal power / Enculturation • Colonisation/ Australian Historical events • Stereotyping /racism • Victim blaming • Communication/health literacy • Cultural safety/ Cultural competence • Social Determinants of Health • Codes and Standards of Nursing and Midwifery practice TIP: Remember that you need to demonstrate that you understand the concepts above, so start your paragraphs with a topic sentence that introduces the concept, then relate the concept to the case study in a way that shows you understand how the concept can be applied in ‘real life’. Discussion of at least three concepts in depth is expected as a minimum. You should be able to refer to several other concepts as well (the more the better) Headings (sub-headings may be used of your choice): Introduction (200 words): Brief overview of the topic and structure of the essay Similarities and differences between health services (400 words) Describe and support with references. Concepts that may influence Bill’s choice (600 words) Strategies to manage health issues in a culturally safe way (600 words) Conclusion (200 words) summary of key points PLEASE SEE resource about kidney health and dialysis services is attached above.

 

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Treatment of Kidney disease

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Introduction

Aboriginal medical service is a hospital that is owned by the community. It is meant to deliver services that are culturally appropriate and in a holistic way. Initially, medical care was not available to the aboriginal and Torres families. They depended on the goodwill of the health practitioners for them to get treated. These people experienced racism in the whole communities’ health system, making it difficult for them to access medical services. Most of the people in this community had high poverty levels, which was a challenge as they could not afford to buy medicines for their patients. Due to these challenges, the community has come up with a comprehensive model to reduce racism and the barriers that could hinder access to health services and improve the health of aboriginal people. Patients in this community are privileged as they have access to the proper treatment of kidney disease, among others. This essay will discuss the comparison and contrast between the local aboriginal medical services and the outpatient’s urban renal unit., Factors that could influence bills’ choice to opt to get treated in the local hospital and the measures to help health care staff in Perth manage to experience a culturally safe environment.

 

 

 Compare and contrast between an urban outpatient renal unit and Aboriginal Medical Services

Aboriginal medical services are an organization that is located in a rural area. It’s a hospital that treats kidney-related diseases. It is believed that these hospital health workers have insufficient training (Hill et al., 2018). It shows that their work is inadequate.  Lack of skills could result in unfair treatment, leading to death or causing more harm to the patient. Patients in this hospital inject drugs by themselves. It is a challenge as it could lead to the transmission of infections to other patients. Technology, in terms of medical kits and equipment, is less advanced. The equipment is few; hence the patients have to wait longer to get treated.

The urban outpatient renal unit comprises medical procedures, tests, and services provided to the patients in a setting not involving an overnight stay at the hospital. It is located in an urban setup (Kutzin et al., 2017). The outpatient renal unit offers treatment for kidney disease. In an urban location out the medical professionals are many and are skilled. They know to take care of these patients; hence these patients tend to live longer. In urban outpatient renal units, they have advanced technology; therefore, the patients are treated well. The mortality rates in these hospitals are low since more care is given. Treatment services are a bit costly. It’s because the health workers spend more time with the patient, and proper medication is administered. Their machines are more advanced; hence their maintenance is costly. Patients in urban areas used less time to get the transplant. Racial and ethnic groups determine the patient chance of survival. The patient doesn’t have to go physically to the hospital. They can make calls and inquire about information from health practitioners.

Similarities

Both Aboriginal Medical Services and an urban outpatient renal unit offer medical treatment to patients’ kidney diseases.  They help patients with this condition live longer and feel better when they get treated. Both require financial resources from the patients to get treated (Ivers et al., 2019). Hence the families and friends have to be supportive of the patient to enable them to get treated. They also required emotional support from the families and health care providers. The racial and ethnic group determines the chance of survival for patients. Survival and time to transplant analyses are based on the time from first sage to stage forth. They do not differ materially from primary studies. Both organizations are profit-based. They need to make profits from the services they are offering. It is the main reason why the treatment of this disease is costly.

Concepts that may influence Bill’s choice

The availability of professional health workers could have influenced bill choice. In this hospital, the medical staff was from the aboriginal community. They understood the language, culture, and beliefs of that community. They were also well trained hence could deliver their services following the hospital guidelines. Passing information to the patients would be easy, thus giving clear instructions on how to take care of themselves clear. Health workers treated patients with equality since they understood their needs. It was easy for patients to communicate their needs with doctors. Therefore, Bill could opt to get treatment in the local hospital to feel culturally accepted and free to speak.

 

Accessibility of the local hospital for Bill could also influence the choice. The Aboriginal hospital was around the place of residence of this patient. It meant that it could be easier for him to access the hospital as soon as possible. The disease had advanced to the last stage. It meant that he needed to be near the hospital in case of an emergency (Gould, 2017).  The doctors could offer the patient from home if he could not reach the hospital physically since they came from the local community. Obtaining medicine from the hospital could also be accessible as he could call the hospital and send a family member to pick them. Through government support, the infrastructure was improved, making it easy for people to drive their way to the hospital.

The cost of getting medical services could also influence the decision. The local community owns this hospital, and it also has government support. Funds donated have been used in the development of the hospital to better the health of the patients. Being a non-profit organization, the cost of getting treated is low. It makes it affordable for people of the local community from the short class to the high level to get treated. In this community, most people come from humble backgrounds. This hospital helped people suffering from different diseases get treatment and increase their chances of survival. Treatment for kidney disease requires one to be financially stable as it costs a lot. Bill could have made this decision because the cost was low hence could afford the treatment bills.

Introduction of home-based care in Perth could have influenced his decision. From home, he could get support from the family member physically, socially, and emotionally. It was easy for the patient to access suitable accommodation that is clean and in an area that is environmentally friendly. Health technicians could also attend to the patient more carefully since there is less pressure while working. It also reduced traveling expenses to and from the hospital. This program would only require Bill to visit the hospital if it came to the worst condition. The patient could also do simple tasks at home, which could help in relieving boredom and stress. This care could have increase lifetime for the patient hence increase happiness for the family.

Availability medical tools. With the government and well-wishers’ support, there were enough medical devices such as equipment and drugs. It influences the well-being of the patients. It ensured that the patients were provided with the right medication on time. It was easy for the technicians and the nurses to do screening for the patients since they had the required equipment. Doctors and surgeons carried out successful surgeries on the patient hence saving their lives (Gwynne et al., 2019).  Therefore bill would choose the local hospital since they would meet his needs. The patient would be attended to in a way that is satisfactory and culturally defined

Strategies to manage health issues in a culturally safe way

Obtaining a certificate in cultural competence

Human resources hiring health workers should ensure that the employees are skilled and that knowledge in health care. They can also increase their cultural awareness and skills through culturally competent training, workshops, or seminars. During these events, they take a good time to teach them how to become culturally competent in their work. They can develop strategies of awarding this the best candidate to be culturally competent (Corbett et al., 2020). They can also give the staff journal articles and books that have useful information to improve cultural competence. Health care practitioners can also use the Internet to enhance their skills. The Internet has many sources with vital information which can help them learn the skills. They can get practical examples from tutorials and try to implement them.

Directly engage in cross-cultural interactions with patients 

Doctors and nurses should be able to understand that each patient is unique. It can help them interact well with them.  This relationship is essential as it reflects how they will handle the patients. They need to have the capability to explore the patient’s values, beliefs and needs to establish effective relationships among them (Stucki et al., 2017). By identifying the patients’ needs, the nurses and doctors can define ways of meeting their needs; hence they get satisfied. Understanding their beliefs and values will help the nurse know how to deliver communication with them. The patient’s views should not affect the way they get treated but rather should better it. They should not feel intimidated because of their differences.

Local cultural contextually

This domain enforces and acknowledges the significance of interacting with the local community to understand the effect of contact history and how it has affected people’s lives and experiences. Positive and negative responses predispose the health, wellbeing, and life chances of the people to the particular health care experiences (Sylvanus et al., 2019). Healthcare safety strategies actively involve patients by engaging them in designing and delivering the healthcare services provided to address their particular health needs. Cultural safety enables people to receive safe health services by recognizing the power relationship between healthcare professionals and receiving health care. It is a measure toward enhancing health professional plans for the healthcare level.

Recognizing and valuing the role of health workers

Recognizing and valuing the role of the health worker’s role is frequently ill-defined and blurred because of the different scope and nature of the community engagement services and clinical work.  Due to this blurring, workers themselves experience ethical and cultural predicaments in healthcare, causing reduced support and increased burnout rates. A health worker is usually the first contact with the local people who need to get healthcare. They also play an essential role in advising on the local community. Indigenous health workers are also crucial in connecting the local society with health service, increasing access to culturally safe services, which is a responsive system. Workers’ safety is essential and should be maintained by the staff and people to enforce the operation’s smooth running.

Individual reflection.

It is among the defining features of cultural safety because it requires unique health professionals to engage in skillful self-reflection even if personal reflection benefits have long been acclaimed (Smith et al., 2017). Therefore, health managers have a vital role in safeguarding aboriginal health workers in practice across the healthcare work environment. If you are in any position in the health facility, it is essential to know the weakness and so that it can be useful in attending to the patients and offering the best services. Similar operations and services should be by other health care workers so that the hospital can run smoothly. The health facilities can be given guidelines for attending to individual reflection for workers.

Conclusion

Patients with Peritoneal dialysis require a lot of care during their period of illness. Providing healthcare services to rural aboriginal people with kidney disease is challenging due to obstacles to cultural differences. Patients believe that priorities for cultivating services are family-centered and culturally accepting healthcare systems and improving the kidney disease’s high screening. Patients should be provided with opportunities to educate the community about disease prevention as they get affected directly.  The above discussion shows that urban outpatient rental units could be preferred when the cost factor is not implied. It’s because they offer better services that are efficient. They are also easy to access due to good infrastructure in the areas. They also have better facilities compared to rural area facilities hence better care to the patients. Health professionals in urban hospitals are skilled in line with their profession. The availability of tools and equipment determines how the patient will be treated in the hospital. It also affects the preference of patients coming to the facility to get medical services. For doctors working in a rural hospital, it is essential to manage health issues in a culturally-based environment.

References

Corbett, R. W., Blakey, S., Nitsch, D., Loucaidou, M., McLean, A., Duncan, N., & Ashby, D. R. (2020). Epidemiology of COVID-19 in an urban dialysis center. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 31(8), 1815-1823.

Department of Health, Western Australia. Framework to Improve Home Dialysis Therapy in Western Australia. Perth: Health Networks Branch, Department of Health, Western Australia; September 2011.

Gould, G. (2017). SISTAQUIT-improving strategies to support pregnant aboriginal women to quit smoking, NHMRC, and the global alliance for chronic disease. Impact, 2017(10), 6-8.

Gwynne, K., Jeffries, T., & Lincoln, M. (2019). Improving the efficacy of healthcare services for Aboriginal Australians. Australian Health Review, 43(3), 314-322.

Hill, I., Johnson, D., Scrimgeour, D., & McDermott, R. (2018). Accuracy of national key performance indicator reporting from two Aboriginal medical services: potential to underestimate the performance of primary health care. Australian Health Review, 42(4), 453-460.

Ivers, R., Jackson, B., Levett, T., Wallace, K., & Winch, S. (2019). Home to health care to hospital: Evaluation of a cancer care team based in Australian Aboriginal primary care. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 27(1), 88-92.

Kutzin, J., Witter, S., Jowett, M., Bayarsaikhan, D., & World Health Organization. (, 2017). Developing a national health financing strategy: a reference guide. World Health Organization.

Matthias, O., & Brown, S. (2016). Implementing operations strategy through Lean processes within health care. International Journal of Operations & Production Management.

Mowatt G, Vale L, MacLeod A. Systematic review of the effectiveness of homeversus hospital or  satellite unit haemodialysis for people with endstage renal failure International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 2004;20(3):258-68

 

Smith, S., O’Grady, L., Cubillo, C., & Cavanagh, S. (2017). Using culturally appropriate approaches to the development of KidsMatter resources to support the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal children. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 299-305.

Stucki, G., Bickenbach, J., & Melvin, J. (2017). Strengthening rehabilitation in health systems worldwide by integrating information on functioning in national health information systems. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, 96(9), 677-681.

Sylvanus, E., Sawe, H. R., Muhanuzi, B., Mulesi, E., Mfinanga, J. A., Weber, E. J., & Kilindimo, S. (2019). Profile and outcome of patients with emergency complications of renal failure presenting to an urban emergency department of a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. BMC emergency medicine, 19(1), 11.

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